Study Details

Study Title: Handbook of Road Safety Measures

Authors: Elvik, R. and Vaa, T.

Publication Date: 2004

Abstract:

Study Citation: Elvik, R. and Vaa, T., "Handbook of Road Safety Measures." Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, (2004)


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Access management

Countermeasure: Provide a raised median

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.94 -94 1 Star All K,A,B,C Not specified Rural
2.28 -128 2 Stars All O Not specified Rural
0.61 [B] 39 4 Stars All K,A,B,C Not Specified Urban
0.78 [B] 22 5 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Urban
1.09 [B] -9 5 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Urban
0.88 [B] 12 5 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural
0.82 [B] 18 5 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Reduce driveways from 10-24 to less than 10 per mile

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 [B] 25 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Reduce driveways from 26-48 to 10-24 per mile

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.69 [B] 31 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Reduce driveways from 48 to 26-48 per mile

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 [B] 29 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Category:Advanced technology and ITS

Countermeasure: Individual changeable speed warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.59 41 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install changeable "Queue Ahead" warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.84 [B] 16 3 Stars Rear end A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Urban
1.16 [I] -16 3 Stars Rear end O Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Urban

Countermeasure: Install changeable crash ahead warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 [I] 44 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Urban

Countermeasure: Install changeable speed warning signs for individual drivers

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.54 [I] 46 4 Stars All All Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Provide active close-following warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 6 1 Star Rear end Not Specified Not specified Not specified

Category:Bicyclists

Countermeasure: Raised bicycle crossings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.09 -9 1 Star Vehicle/bicycle A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Category:Delineation

Countermeasure: Add lane lines on multilane roadway segments

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.82 18 3 Stars All All Principal Arterial Other Urban

Countermeasure: Install distance markers (angle symbols) on roadway segments

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.44 56 3 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Not specified

Countermeasure: Install edgelines, centerlines, and post-mounted delineators

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.55 [B] 45 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified All

Countermeasure: Install post-mounted delineators

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.04 [B*] -4 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
1.05 [B*] -5 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Install raised pavement markers and transverse rumble strips on approach to horizontal curves

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 6 2 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place centerline markings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.99 [B*] 1 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
1.01 [B*] -1 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place edgeline and centerline markings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.76 [B] 24 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place standard edgeline marking (4-6 in)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.97 [B*] 3 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
0.97 [B*] 3 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place wide (8 inches) edgeline markings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.05 [B*] -5 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
0.99 [I*] 1 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Placing edgelines and background/ directional markings on horizontal curves

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.81 19 3 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Rural

Category:Highway lighting

Countermeasure: Illumination

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.69 31 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified
0.31 69 3 Stars All K All All
0.27 74 1 Star All K All Rural
0.8 20 3 Stars All A,B,C All Rural
0.7 30 2 Stars All O All Rural
0.37 64 1 Star All K All Urban
0.69 32 4 Stars All A,B,C All Urban
0.84 16 4 Stars All O All Urban
0.27 73 1 Star All K Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways All
0.73 27 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways All
0.68 32 3 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways All

Countermeasure: Provide highway lighting

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.31 69 3 Stars All K All All
0.72 [B] 28 4 Stars Nighttime A,B,C All All
0.83 [B] 18 4 Stars Nighttime O All All

Countermeasure: Provide intersection illumination

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.62 [B] 38 4 Stars Nighttime A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.69 31 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified
0.22 78 1 Star Vehicle/pedestrian K Not specified Not specified
0.58 [I] 42 4 Stars Nighttime,Vehicle/pedestrian A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.23 77 3 Stars All K Not specified Not specified
0.5 50 3 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.52 49 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified
0.19 82 3 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian K Not specified Not specified
0.41 59 4 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Category:Interchange design

Countermeasure: Extend acceleration lane by approx. 98 ft (30 m)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 5 Stars All All Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Extend deceleration lane by approx. 100 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.93 [B*] 7 3 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Category:Intersection geometry

Countermeasure: Convert four-leg intersection into two three-leg intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.35 -35 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Urban
0.75 [B] 25 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Urban
0.67 [B] 33 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Urban
1.15 [B] -15 3 Stars All O Not Specified Urban
1 [B*] 0 3 Stars All O Not Specified Urban
0.9 [B*] 10 3 Stars All O Not Specified Urban

Countermeasure: Painted channelization of both major and minor roads

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.43 57 4 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Painted channelization of left-turn lane on major road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 22 3 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.8 20 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural
1.28 -28 2 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.74 26 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Physical channelization of both major and minor roads

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.16 -16 3 Stars All K,A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.73 27 4 Stars All K,A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.87 13 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Physical channelization of right-turn lane on major road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.98 2 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.87 13 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.81 19 1 Star All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Provide a channelized left-turn lane on both major- and minor-road approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.73 [I] 27 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Provide a channelized left-turn lane on both major-road approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.2 -20 2 Stars All O Not specified Rural
0.96 [I*] 4 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
0.84 16 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Category:Intersection traffic control

Countermeasure: Permit right-turn-on-red

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.6 [B] -60 4 Stars Right turn A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
1.1 [B] -10 5 Stars Right turn O Not Specified Not Specified

Category:On-street parking

Countermeasure: Convert angle parking to parallel parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.65 35 4 Stars All All Local Urban
0.37 63 4 Stars Parking related All Local Urban

Countermeasure: Convert free to regulated parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 [B*] 6 3 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban
1.19 [B] -19 5 Stars All O Minor Arterial Urban

Countermeasure: Implement time-limited parking restrictions

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 [B] 11 3 Stars All All Minor Arterial,Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban
0.21 [B] 79 4 Stars Parking related All Minor Arterial,Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban

Countermeasure: Mark parking stalls

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.51 -51 4 Stars All All Local Urban
2.28 -128 2 Stars Parking related All Local Urban

Countermeasure: Prohibit on-street parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.8 20 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban
0.73 27 5 Stars All O Minor Arterial Urban

Countermeasure: Prohibit parking on one side of road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.49 -49 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Urban

Category:Pedestrians

Countermeasure: Install raised pedestrian crosswalks

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.64 36 1 Star All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.55 46 1 Star Vehicle/pedestrian A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.7 30 1 Star All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Raised intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.05 -5 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
1.13 -13 1 Star All O Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Widen sidewalks at intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.12 -12 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Category:Railroad grade crossings

Countermeasure: Implementing signs and crossbucks at previously unprotected crossings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 25 3 Stars All Not Specified Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install automatic gates at crossings that previously had flashing lights and sound signals

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.55 [B] 45 4 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install automatic gates at crossings that previously had passive traffic control

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.33 [B] 67 4 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install flashing lights and sound signals

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.5 [B] 50 5 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Category:Roadside

Countermeasure: Change barrier along embankment to less rigid type

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.59 [I] 41 3 Stars Run off road K Not specified Not specified
0.68 [B] 32 4 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Flatten sideslope from 1V:3H to 1V:4H

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.58 42 5 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.71 29 5 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Flatten sideslope from 1V:4H to 1V:6H

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 22 5 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.76 24 5 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Increase distance to roadside features from 16.7 ft to 30 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 [B] 44 5 Stars All All All Rural

Countermeasure: Increase distance to roadside features from 3.3 ft to 16.7 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 [B] 22 5 Stars All All All Rural

Countermeasure: Increase triangle sight distance

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.3 -30 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
1.29 -29 1 Star All O Not specified Not specified
0.53 48 3 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.89 11 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install any type of median barrier

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.57 [B] 43 4 Stars All K Principal Arterial Other Rural
0.7 [B] 30 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural
1.24 [B] -24 5 Stars All All Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Install cable median barrier

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 [B] 29 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Install concrete guardrail in median

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.15 -15 3 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Not specified

Countermeasure: Install crash cushions at fixed roadside features

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.31 [I] 69 3 Stars Fixed object K Not Specified Not Specified
0.31 [B] 69 4 Stars Fixed object A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.54 [I] 46 3 Stars Fixed object O Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install steel median barrier

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.65 [B] 35 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Install wire guardrails between lanes of opposing traffic

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0 100 1 Star All K Principal Arterial Other Not specified
0.74 26 1 Star All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Not specified
1.34 -34 1 Star All All Principal Arterial Other Not specified

Countermeasure: New guardrail along embankment

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 44 4 Stars Run off road K Not specified Not specified
0.53 47 5 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.93 7 3 Stars Run off road All Not specified Not specified

Category:Roadway

Countermeasure: Effects of snow fences and higher state of preparedness for the whole winter season

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 3 Stars All All All All
0.92 8 3 Stars All All All All

Countermeasure: Effects of use of salt (chemical de-icing) during the whole winter season (baseline = no salt)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.85 15 3 Stars All A,B,C All All
0.92 8 3 Stars All O All All
1.12 -12 3 Stars All A,B,C All All
1 0 3 Stars All O All All

Countermeasure: Raise standard by one class for winter maintenance

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 [B] 11 5 Stars All A,B,C All All
0.73 [B] 27 5 Stars All O All All

Countermeasure: Short-term effects of all measures to control snow, slush or ice

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.5 50 4 Stars All Not Specified All All
0.71 29 3 Stars All Not Specified All All
0.96 5 3 Stars All Not Specified All All

Category:Signs

Countermeasure: Advance static curve warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.7 30 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.92 8 1 Star All O Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install combination horizontal alignment/ advisory speed signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.87 [B] 13 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.71 [I] 29 3 Stars All O Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install signs to conform to MUTCD

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.85 15 3 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban
0.93 7 3 Stars All O Local Urban

Category:Speed management

Countermeasure: Adjacent to roads with speed humps

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.95 [B*] 5 3 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Area-wide or corridor-specific traffic calming

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 [B] 11 5 Stars All A,B,C All Urban
0.82 [B] 18 3 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban
0.94 [B*] 6 3 Stars All A,B,C Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban
0.95 [I*] 5 3 Stars All O All Urban
0.94 [B*] 6 3 Stars All O Local Urban
0.97 [I*] 3 3 Stars All O Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban

Countermeasure: Install speed humps

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.6 [I] 40 4 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.5 50 4 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Install transverse rumble strips as traffic calming device

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.66 34 4 Stars All All Local Urban and Suburban
0.64 36 4 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.73 28 2 Stars All O Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Traffic calming

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.68 32 4 Stars All All Minor Collector Urban
0.67 33 4 Stars All A,B,C Minor Collector Urban
0.75 25 3 Stars All O Minor Collector Urban
0.67 33 4 Stars All A,B,C Minor Collector Urban