Study Details

Study Title: Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition

Authors: Various

Publication Date: 2010

Abstract: Part D (Chapters 13-17) of the Highway Safety Manual contains CMFs. Most CMFs in Part D can be attributed to specific studies, and where these CMFs appear in the CMF Clearinghouse, they are attributed to the specific study of origin. However, some CMFs in Part D were attributed to multiple studies or in some cases, no study at all. In these cases, the entries for these CMFs in the Clearinghouse attribute them to the 1st edition of the Highway Safety Manual.

Study Citation: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Highway Safety Manual. Washington, DC, 2010.

Study Report: Download the Study Report Document


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Advanced technology and ITS

Countermeasure: Implement automated speed enforcement cameras

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.83 17 5 Stars All K,A,B,C All All

Countermeasure: Install red-light cameras

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.74 26 5 Stars Other All Not specified Urban
1.18 -18 5 Stars Rear end All Not specified Urban

Category:Interchange design

Countermeasure: Modify length of acceleration lane

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
CMF Equation Cannot Be Rated (HSM) All All Principal Arterial Interstate
CMF Equation Cannot Be Rated (HSM) All K,A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate

Category:Intersection traffic control

Countermeasure: Change from permissive to protected

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 [°] 6 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) All All Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Change from permissive to protected/permissive or permissive/protected phasing

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.99 [°] 1 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) All All Not specified All

Countermeasure: Change left-turn phase from permissive to protected/permissive or permissive/protected phasing on one or more approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.84 16 5 Stars Left turn K,A,B,C Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Change left-turn phase to protected phasing on one or more approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.01 99 5 Stars Left turn All Not specified Urban
0.94 6 3 Stars All All Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Permit right-turn-on-red

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.69 -69 5 Stars Vehicle/bicycle,Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Prohibit right-turn-on-red

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
CMF Equation Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Angle,Cross median,Day time,Dry weather,Fixed object,Head on,Left turn,Multiple vehicle,Nighttime,Non-intersection,Parking related,Rear end,Rear to rear,Right turn,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle,Speed related,Truck related,Vehicle/animal,Wet road All Not specified

Category:On-street parking

Countermeasure: Prohibit on-street parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 22 5 Stars All K,A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Urban
0.72 28 5 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Urban

Category:Roadway

Countermeasure: Install TWLTL (two-way left turn lane) on two lane road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
CMF Equation Cannot Be Rated (HSM) All All Minor Arterial Rural

Category:Shoulder treatments

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 1 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.01 [°] -1 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 10 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.07 [°] -7 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 2 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.02 [°] -2 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 3 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.02 [°] -2 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 4 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.03 [°] -3 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 6 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.04 [°] -4 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to composite shoulder (maintain 8 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.06 [°] -6 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 1 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1 [°] 0 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 10 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.03 [°] -3 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 2 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.01 [°] -1 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 3 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.01 [°] -1 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 4 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.01 [°] -1 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 6 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.02 [°] -2 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to gravel shoulder (maintain 8 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.02 [°] -2 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 1 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.01 [°] -1 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 10 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.14 [°] -14 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 2 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.03 [°] -3 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 3 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.04 [°] -4 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 4 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.05 [°] -5 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 6 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.08 [°] -8 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Convert paved shoulder to turf shoulder (maintain 8 ft width)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.11 [°] -11 Cannot Be Rated (HSM) Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe,Single vehicle Not Specified Minor Arterial Rural

Countermeasure: Modify paved shoulder width on rural frontage roads

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
CMF Equation Cannot Be Rated (HSM) All All Minor Collector Rural