Study Details

Study Title: Safety Effects of Shoulder Paving for Rural and Urban Interstate, Mulitlane, and Two-Lane Highways

Authors: Li et al.

Publication Date: OCT, 2013

Abstract: This paper introduces an Empirical Bayesian (EB) before-after analysis method for assessing the effects of highway shoulder paving on safety performance. In the first step, multi-year data on field-observed crash frequencies for highway segments with pavement resurfacing and shoulder paving (Type I treatment) and highway segments with pavement resurfacing only (Type II treatment), as well as untreated highway segments, on the Illinois state-maintained rural and urban interstate, multilane, and two-lane highways are collected. Next, data on untreated highway segments are used to calibrate safety performance functions (SPFs) and to predict crash frequencies for Type I and II treated highway segments, in the cases where respective treatments not been implemented. After computing the EB-adjusted crash frequency as a weighted sum of field-observed and SPF-predicted crash frequencies, the EB crash frequency for the after-treatment period is established by adjusting the EB crash frequency for the before-treatment period according to changes in traffic volumes and segment lengths between before- and after-treatment periods. The safety effects of shoulder paving are determined as the difference in the EB-adjusted Type I and II crash frequencies for the after-treatment period. It is revealed that reductions in shoulder-related fatal, injury, and property damage only (PDO) crashes from shoulder paving varies greatly by highway functional classification; and adding a new paved shoulder tends to be more effective in terms of crash reductions than paving the same width of the existing paved shoulder that has deteriorated over time or widening the paved shoulder.

Study Citation: Li, Z., K. Kepaptsoglou, Y. Lee, H. Patel, Y. Liu, and H.G. Kim. "Safety Effects of Shoulder Paving for Rural and Urban Interstate, Multilane, and Two-Lane Highways". Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 139, (2013) pp 1010-1019.

Related Citations: Bamzai, R., Y. Lee, and Z. Li. "Safety Impacts of Highway Shoulder Attributes in Illinois." Report No. FHWA-ICT-11-078, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL, (April 2011).


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Shoulder treatments

Countermeasure: Pave deteriorated shoulder (2 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.93 7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.81 19 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.89 11 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.85 15 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.73 27 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.91 9 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Pave deteriorated shoulder (4 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.81 19 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.93 7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.8 20 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.8 20 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.9 10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.73 27 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.9 10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.94 6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Pave deteriorated shoulder (6 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.95 5 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.8 20 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.88 12 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.98 2 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.98 2 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.94 6 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.96 4 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.73 27 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.81 19 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.79 21 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.72 28 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.92 8 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.91 9 3 Stars Head on,Left turn,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Pave deteriorated shoulder (8 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.78 22 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.85 15 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.94 6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1 0 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.88 12 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.64 36 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.82 18 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.7 30 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.84 16 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.9 10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Pave deteriorated shoulder (>8 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.19 -19 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.21 -21 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.1 -10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.03 -3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.02 -2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.08 -8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.44 -44 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.94 6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
1.02 -2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.16 -16 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.72 28 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.35 -35 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
1.07 -7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
1.06 -6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.14 -14 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.89 11 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Widen paved shoulder from 4 ft to 6 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.03 -3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.03 -3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.9 10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.02 -2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.05 -5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.03 -3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.01 -1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.87 13 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.02 -2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.77 23 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.04 -4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.91 9 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Widen paved shoulder from 4 ft to 8 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.06 -6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.07 -7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.84 16 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.04 -4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.06 -6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.93 7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.07 -7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.65 35 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.67 33 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.05 -5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.59 41 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
1.23 -23 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.09 -9 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.87 13 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Widen paved shoulder from 6 ft to 8 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.03 -3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.04 -4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1 0 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.93 7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.02 -2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.02 -2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
1.01 -1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.06 -6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.69 31 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.81 19 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1.04 -4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.82 18 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
1.25 -25 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.05 -5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Widen shoulder (paved) (from 0 to 4 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.86 14 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.05 -5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.93 7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.07 -7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.1 -10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.99 1 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.7 30 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.77 23 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.54 46 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.9 10 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Widen shoulder (paved) (from 0 to 6 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.08 -8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.97 3 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.83 17 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.09 -9 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.15 -15 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.98 2 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.95 5 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1 0 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.93 7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.57 43 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.79 21 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.75 25 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.52 48 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1 0 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.8 20 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Widen shoulder (paved) (from 0 to 8 ft)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
1.11 -11 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
0.77 23 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.11 -11 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe K Not specified Urban
1.07 -7 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
1 0 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.92 8 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.96 4 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.06 -6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.63 37 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe A,B,C Not specified Urban
0.38 62 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Rural
0.82 18 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.57 43 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Rural
0.77 23 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Principal Arterial Interstate Urban
1.06 -6 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban
0.77 23 3 Stars Fixed object,Head on,Run off road,Sideswipe O Not specified Urban