Study Details

Study Title: Developing Crash Modification Functions for Pedestrian Signal Improvement

Authors: Sacchi et al.

Publication Date: JUL, 2015

Abstract: Pedestrian signals are viable traffic control devices that help pedestrians to cross safely at intersections. Although the literature is extensive when dealing with pedestrian signals design and operations, few studies have focused on the potential safety benefits of installing pedestrian signals at intersections. Most of these studies employed simple before-after (BA) safety evaluation techniques which suffer from methodological and statistical issues. Recent advances in safety evaluation research advocate the use of crash modification functions (CMFunctions) to represent the safety effectiveness of treatments. Unlike crash modification factors (CMFs) that are represented as single values, CMFunctions account for variable treatment location characteristics (heterogeneity). Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify the safety impact of installing pedestrian signals at signalized intersections by developing CMFunctions within an observational BA study. The use of observational BA framework to develop the CMFunctions avoids the cross-sectional approach where the functions are derived based on a single time period and no actual treatment intervention. Treatment sites heterogeneity was incorporated into CMFunctions using fixed-effects and random- effects regression models. In addition to heterogeneity, the paper also advocates the use of CMFunctions with a time variable to acknowledge that the safety treatment (intervention) effects do not occur instantaneously but are spread over future time. This is achieved using non-linear intervention (Koyck) models, developed within a hierarchical full Bayes context. The results demonstrated the importance of considering treatment sites heterogeneity (i.e., different circulating volumes and area type among treated locations) and time trends when developing CMFunctions for pedestrian signal improvement.

Study Citation: Sacchi, Emaunuele, T. Sayed, and A. Osama. "Developing crash modification functions for pedestrian signal improvement". Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 83, (2015) pp. 47-56.


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Pedestrians

Countermeasure: Install Pedestrian Signals

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
CMF Equation 3 Stars All All Not specified Urban and suburban
CMF Equation 3 Stars All K,A,B,C Not specified Urban and suburban
CMF Equation 3 Stars All O Not specified Urban and suburban