Study Details

Study Title: Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments

Authors: Zegeer et al.

Publication Date: JAN, 2017

Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and for several different types of pedestrian treatments at unsignalized pedestrian crossings. Ultimately, the four treatment types selected for evaluation included: Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons (RRFBs), Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons (PHBs), Pedestrian refuge islands, and Advance Yield or STOP markings and signs. A total of approximately 1,000 treatment and comparison sites were selected from 14 different cities throughout the U.S. Most of the study sites were selected at intersections on urban, multi-lane streets, since these are the situations which have a high risk for pedestrian crashes and where countermeasures are typically most needed. For each study site, relevant data were collected regarding the treatment characteristics, traffic, geometric, and roadway variables, and the pedestrian crashes and other crash types that occurred at each site. Cross-sectional regression models and before/after empirical Bayesian analysis techniques were used to determine the crash effects of each treatment type. All four of the treatment types were found to be associated with reductions in pedestrian crash risk, compared to the untreated sites. Pedestrian hybrid beacons were associated with the greatest benefit to pedestrian crash risk, followed by refuge islands, advance yield/stop lines and signs, and RRFBs. While safety effects were expected to vary based on such factors as number of lanes, traffic volume, operating speed, and perhaps other factors, the data sample did not allow for disaggregation of expected effects. Recommendations were made for incorporating the results of this study into various national guidelines and manuals, with appropriate caveats.

Study Citation: Zegeer, C., R. Srinivasan, B. Lan, D. Carter, S. Smith, C. Sundstrom, N. Thirsk, C. Lyon, B. Persaud, J. Zegeer, E. Ferguson, and R. Van Houten. "Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments", National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Research Report 841, Washington, D.C., 2017.

Related Citations: Zegeer, C., C. Lyon, R. Srinivasan, B. Persaud, B. Lan, S. Smith, D. Carter, N. Thirsk, J. Zegeer, E. Ferguson, R. Van Houten, and C. Sundstrom. "Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments". Transportation Research Record No. 2636, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Science, Washington, D.C. (2017). Also presented at the 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board as Paper No. 17-03480, Washington, D.C., (2017).

Study Report: Download the Study Report Document


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Pedestrians

Countermeasure: Install a pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB or HAWK)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.453 54.7 4 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Install advanced yield or stop markings and signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 25 3 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.886 11.4 4 Stars All All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.8 20 5 Stars Rear end,Sideswipe All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Install pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB or HAWK) with advanced yield or stop markings and signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.432 56.8 4 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.82 18 5 Stars All All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.876 12.4 4 Stars Rear end,Sideswipe All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Install raised median with or without marked crosswalk (uncontrolled)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.685 31.5 3 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.742 25.8 4 Stars All All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.714 28.6 4 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.741 25.9 4 Stars Rear end,Sideswipe All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban
0.722 27.8 4 Stars Rear end,Sideswipe A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Install rectangular rapid flashing beacon (RRFB)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.526 47.4 2 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian All Minor Arterial Urban and suburban